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•´¯`•)»(Walnuts)«(•´¯`• - a1.fruit

walnuts - •´¯`•)»(Walnuts)«(•´¯`• Newest pictures
What's New and Beneficial about
*.Researchers are convinced -
more than ever before - about the
nutritional benefits of walnuts
when consumed in wholeform,
including the skin. We now know
that approximately 90% ofthe
phenols in walnuts are foundin the
skin, including key phenolicacids,
tannins, and flavonoids. Some
websites will encourage you to
remove the walnut skin -that
whitish, sometimes waxy,
sometimes flaky, outermost partof
shelled walnuts. There can be
slight bitterness to this skin,
andthat's often the reason that
websites give for removing it.
However, we encourage you notto
remove this phenol-rich portion.
*.The form of vitamin E found
inwalnuts is somewhat unusual,
and particularly beneficial. Instead
of having most of its vitamin E
present in the alpha-tocopherol
form, walnuts providean unusually
high level of vitaminE in the form
of gamma-tocopherol. Particularly
in studieson the cardiovascular
health of men, this gamma-
tocopherol form of vitamin E has
been foundto provide significant
protection from heart problems.
*.Most U.S. adults have yet to
discover the benefits of walnuts.A
recent study has determined that
only 5.5% of all adults (ages19-50)
consume tree nuts of any kind!
This small percentage of people
actually do a pretty good job of
integrating tree nuts (including
walnuts) into their diet, and
average about 1.25 ounces of tree
nuts per day. But the other 94.5%
of us report no consumption of
tree nuts whatsoever. In a recent
look at the nutritional differences
between tree nut eaters and non-
eaters, researchers have reported
somepretty notable findings: on a
daily average, tree nut eaters take
in 5 grams more fiber, 260
milligrams more potassium, 73
more milligrams of calcium, 95
more milligrams of magnesium, 3.7
milligrams more vitamin E, and157
milligrams less sodium!
*.Many of us can go local for our
supply of walnuts. According to the
latest trade statistics, 38% of all
walnuts are grown in the U.S. Of
that 38%, the vast majority (almost
90%) come fromCalifornia, and
particularly from the San Joaquin
and SacramentoValleys. Buying
walnuts closer to home can
provide great benefitsfrom the
standpoint of sustainability.
*.Phytonutrient research on the
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
benefits of walnuts has moved this
food further and further up the
ladder of foods that are protective
against metabolic syndrome,
cardiovascular problems, and type
2 diabetes. Some phytonutrients
found in walnuts - for example, the
quinone juglone - are found in
virtually no other commonly-eaten
foods. Other phytonutrients - like
the tannin tellimagrandin or the
flavonol morin - are also
rare and valuable as antioxidants
and anti-inflammatory nutrients.
These anti-inflammatory and
antioxidant phytonutrients also
help explain the decreased risk of
certain cancers - including prostate
cancer and breast cancer - in
relationship to walnut
WHFoods Recommendations
Walnuts are part of the tree nut
family. This food family includes
Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts
(filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans,
pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.
It would be difficult to
overestimate the potential health
benefits associated with this food
family! In the majority of dietary
studies, approximately one ounce
of tree nuts per day is the minimal
amount needed to provide
statistically significant benefits, and
that's the amount we recommend
that you incorporate into your
daily diet. In the case of walnuts,
one ounce means about 7 shelled
walnuts, or 14 walnut halves. Of
course, since tree nuts
(includingwalnuts) are a high-
calorie food,it's important to
incorporate tree nuts into an
overall healthydiet that remains on
target in terms of calories. Luckily,
research has shown that many
people are able to take this step
with good success in terms of
overall caloric intake.
Walnuts not only taste great but
are a rich source of heart-healthy
monounsaturated fats and an
excellent source of thosehard to
find omega-3 fatty acids. Like most
nuts, they can easily be added to
your Healthiest Way of Eating. Just
chop and add to your favorite
salad, vegetable dish, fruit, or
Health Benefits
Cardiovascular Benefits
No aspect of walnuts has been
better evaluated in the research
than their benefits for the heart
and circulatory system. Some
review studies have emphasized
the very favorable impact of
walnuts on"vascular reactivity,"
namely, theability of our blood
vessels to respond to various
stimuli in a healthy manner. In
order to respond to different
stimuli in a healthy way, many
aspects of our cardiovascular
system must be functioning
optimally. These aspects include:
ample presence of antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory nutrients,
proper blood composition, correct
balance in inflammation-regulating
molecules, and propercomposition
and flexibility in our blood vessel
walls. Researchers have
determined the ability of walnuts
to have a favorable impact on all of
these aspects. The chart below
summarizes some key research
findings about walnuts and heart
Cardiovascular Aspect Walnut
Blood Quality decreased LDL
cholesterol; decreased total
cholesterol; increased gamma-
tocopherol; increased omega-3
fatty acids inred blood cells (alpha-
linolenic acid)
Vasomotor Tone decreased aortic
endothelin; improved endothelial
cell function
Risk of Excessive Clotting
decreased maximum platelet
aggregation rate; decreased
platelet activation
Risk of Excessive Inflammation
decreased C reactive protein (CRP);
decreased tumor necrosis factor
alpha (TNF-a)
Research on the blood pressure
benefits of walnuts has been
mixed. We suspect that these
mixed results are related to
differences in mineral
composition amongst different
varieties of walnuts.
Researchershave long been aware
of the relationship between
healthy blood pressure and intake
of specific minerals, including
potassium, calcium, and
magnesium. In multiple studies,
these minerals have a much
greater impact on blood pressure
than the mineral sodium (familiar
to most people in its sodium
chloride form, i.e., everyday table
salt). We've seenstudies showing
the following ranges for key blood
pressure-regulating minerals in
Mineral Natural Range Found
Amongst Different Walnut Varieties
(milligrams per 100 grams)
Potassium 375-500
Calcium 13-91
Magnesium 189-278
Even though there are valuable
amounts of these blood pressure-
regulating minerals in virtually all
varieties of walnuts, the ranges
above may help explain why some
studies have shown statistically
significant benefits from walnuts
on blood pressure while others
have not.
Not in question with respect to
walnuts and cardiovascular
support is their reliable
omega-3content. Adequate intake
of omega-3s, including the alpha-
linolenic acid (ALA) present in
walnuts, has repeatedly been
shown to help improve a wide
variety of cardiovascular functions,
including blood pressure. In at
least one research study, adults
have been able to significantly
increase their blood level of ALA
with as few as 4 walnuts per day.
Walnuts Help Reduce Problems in
Metabolic Syndrome
In the United States, as many as1
in 4 adults may be eligible for
diagnosis with Metabolic
Syndrome (MetS). MetS isn't so
much a "disease" as a constellation
of problematic and overlapping
metabolic problems including
excessive blood fats (triglycerides),
high blood pressure, inadequate
HDL cholesterol, and obesity (as
measured by waist circumference,
and/or body massindex). Recent
studies have shown that
approximately one ounce of
walnuts daily over a period of 2-3
months can help reduce several of
these MetS-related problems. In
addition, addition of walnuts to
participant diets has also been
shown to decrease "abdominal
adiposity"-the technical term
forthe depositing of fat around
themid-section. Importantly, the
MetS benefits of added walnuts
have been achieved without
causing weight gain in any the
studies we've seen to date.
Benefits in Treatment of Type 2
Although we think about type 2
diabetes as a problem primarily
related to blood sugar control and
insulin metabolism, persons
diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
typically have health problems
inother related systems, and are at
special risk for
cardiovascularproblems. An
important part of the goal in
designing a diet plan for persons
with type 2 diabetesis lowering
the risk of future cardiovascular
problems. In this context,
consumption of walnutsis
establishing a more and more
impressive research track record.
Increased flexibility in theresponse
of the cardiovascular system
following meals has been a
repeated finding in research on
walnuts. A variety of different
measurements on bloodvessel
functioning (including
theirmeasurement by ultrasound)
show a relatively small amount of
daily walnut intake (1-2 ounces)
provide significant benefits in
this area for personswith type 2
diabetes. Better blood fat
composition (including less LDL
cholesterol and less total
cholesterol) has also been
demonstrated in persons with type
2 diabetes.
Anti-Cancer Benefits
Given the wide variety antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory nutrients
found in walnuts, it's not
surprising to see research on this
tree nut showing measurable anti-
cancer benefits.The antioxidant
properties of walnuts help lower
risk of chronic oxidative stress,
and theanti-inflammatory
properties help lower risk of
chronic inflammation, and it is
precisely these two types of risk,
that, when combined, pose the
greatest threat for cancer
development. Prostate cancer and
breast cancer are the best-studied
types of cancer with respect to
walnut intake, and their risk has
been found tobe reduced by fairly
large amounts of walnut
consumption. (Large in this case
means approximately 3 ounces per
day.) For prostate cancer, the
evidence is somewhat stronger,
and more studies have involved
human subjects. For breast cancer,
most of the evidence has been
based on studies of rats and mice.
Other Health Benefits
The anti-inflammatory nutrients in
walnuts may play a special role in
support of bone health. Arecent
study has shown that large
amounts of walnuts decrease
blood levels of N-telopeptides of
type 1 collagen(NTx). These
collagen components provide a
good indicator of bone turnover,
and their decreased blood level in
response to walnut intake is an
indication of better bone stability
and less mineral loss from the
bone. "Large amounts" of walnuts
(in this study, actually raw walnuts
plus walnutoil) translated into 50%
of total dietary fat. In an everyday
diet that provided 2,000 calories
and30% of those calories from fat,
this 50% standard for walnuts
would mean about 67 grams of fat
from walnuts or 4 ounces of this
tree nut on a daily basis. While this
amount is more than would most
people would ordinarily consume,
we expect the health benefits of
walnuts for bone health to be
demonstrated in future studies at
substantially lower levels of intake.
Walnuts have also produced a
good track record in the research
as a desirable food for support of
weight loss and for prevention of
obesity. That finding often
surprises people because they
think of high-fat, high-calorie
foods as a primary contributing
factor to obesity and to weight
gain. In general, overconsumption
of high-fat, high-calorie foods is a
primary contributing factor to
obesity and weight gain. However,
obesity has also been clearly
identified by researchers as
involving chronic, unwanted
inflammation. As discussed
earlierin this Health Benefits
section and throughout this
walnuts' profile, walnuts are
unique in their collection of anti-
inflammatory nutrients. These
nutrients include omega-3fatty
acids; phytonutrients including
tannins, phenolic acids, and
flavonoids; quinones like juglone;
and other anti-inflammatory
phytonutrients. These anti-
inflammatory benefits can
overshadow the high-calorie
andhigh-fat risk posed by walnuts,
and that's exactly what they have
done in an increasing number of
research studies involving risk
and/or treatment of obesity. While
it is definitely possible to
overconsume walnuts, most
everyday diets could remain
correctly balanced in terms of
calories and fat whilestill including
fairly generous amounts of
walnuts (in the range of 1-3
A limited (but increasing)
numberof studies have shown
potential health benefits for
walnuts in the area of memory and
generalthought processes (often
referred to as "cognitive"
processes). Thus far, most of the
initial research in this area has
involved rats and mice, but we
expect to see cognitive benefits of
walnuts for humans becoming a
topic of increasing research
A final fascinating aspect of
walnuts and their potential health
benefits involves melatonin (MLT).
MLT is a widely-active messaging
molecule in our nervous system,
and very hormone-like in its
regulatory properties. MLT is
critical in the regulation of sleep,
daily (circadian) rhythms, light-dark
adjustment, and other processes. It
has also been foundto be naturally
occurring within walnuts. Average
melatonin (MLT) content of walnuts
is approximately 3.6 nanograms
(ng) per gram (g), or 102ng/ounce.
Other commonly eaten foods - for
example, cherries - have also been
found to measurable amounts of
MLT. Researchers are not yet sure
how everyday intake of MLT from
walnuts is involved in our health,
but several study authors have
hypothesized about the MLT in
walnuts as playing an important
role (along with other walnut
nutrients) in the anti-cancer
benefits of this unusual food.
Walnuts are a delicious way to add
extra nutrition, flavor and crunch
to a meal. While walnuts are
harvested in December, theyare
available year round and a great
source of those all-important
omega-3 fatty acids.
It is no surprise that the regal and
delicious walnut comes from an
ornamental tree that is highly
prized for its beauty. The walnut
kernel consists of two bumpy
lobes that look like abstract
butterflies. The lobes are off white
in color and covered by a thin, light
brown skin. They are partially
attachedto each other. The kernels
are enclosed in round or oblong
shells that are brown in color and
very hard.
While there are numerous species
of walnut trees, three ofthe main
types of walnuts consumed are the
English (or Persian) walnut, Juglans
regia; the black walnut, Juglans
nigra; and the white (or butternut)
walnut, Juglans cinerea. The
English walnut is the most popular
type in the United States and
features a thinner shell that is
easily broken with anutcracker.
The black walnut hasthicker shells
that are harder tocrack and a
much more pungent distinctive
flavor. The white walnut features a
sweeter and oilier taste than the
other two types, although it is not
as widely available and therefore
may be more difficult to find in the
marketplace. Within these basic
types of walnuts, there are dozens
of different varieties(also called
cultivars). It's not uncommon to
see research studies that evaluate
several dozen different cultivars of
English or black walnuts. All
typesand varieties of walnuts can
have unique nutrient composition.
Sometimes within a particular type
of walnut - for example, English
walnut - there is a surprising
amount of nutritional variety. The
bottom line here is to not to get
caughtup in thinking that one
main type of walnut (for example,
English versus black) is best, butto
take advantage of the nutritional
variety offered by walnuts overall.

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