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◆ HYPERTENSION - diseaseconditions



◆ HYPERTENSION
o0-----------------0o
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
o0-----------------0o


=>GENERAL INFO:
-----------------

High blood pressure (hypertension) is often called the silent killer because you can have it for years without knowing it.

High blood pressure or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. The arteries are the vessels that carry blood from the pumping heart to all of the tissues and organs of the body.

Blood pressure is typically recorded as the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). A consistent blood pressure reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher is considered high blood pressure, another term for hypertension.


=>CAUSES:
-----------

It's not always possible to determine why blood pressure reaches higher levels in some people.
Causes may include narrowing of the arteries or due to the heart beating faster or more forcefully than it should.
High blood pressure might also be caused by another factor such as:

-> Tablets, which include birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, pain relievers.

-> Kidney diseases.

-> Adrenal diseases.

-> Thyroid diseases.

-> Abnormal blood vessels.

-> Pre-eclampsia, a significant increase in blood pressure during the last 3 months of pregnancy.

-> Use of illegal drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines.


=>RISK FACTORS:
------------------
THE MAJOR RISK FACTORS ARE:

-> AGE:-

Blood pressure increases as age increases.

-> RACE:-

High blood pressure is more common in blacks than in whites.

->SEX:-

In young adulthood and early middle age, men have high blood pressure more often than women.

-> GENETIC:-

High blood pressure tends to run in families.


=>OTHER RISK FACTORS:
--------------------

-> Smoking
-> Excessive Salt Intake
-> High Cholestrol
-> Diabetes
-> Obestiy


=>SYMPTOMS:
-------------

Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms,

-> Headaches,
-> Dizziness
-> Nosebleeds ; are common warning signs of high blood pressure.

OTHER CONDITIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO UNCONTROLLED HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE CAUSE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS:

-> Excessive perspiration

-> Muscle cramps

-> Weakness

-> Frequent urination

-> Rapid or irregular heartbeat
(palpitations)


=>DIAGNOSIS:
--------------

The blood pressure usually is measured with a small, portable instrument called a blood pressure instrument (SPHYGMOMANOMETER): (Sphygmo in Greek means pulse, and a manometer measures pressure.). The blood pressure instrument basically consists of an air pump, a pressure gauge, and a rubber cuff. The instrument registers the blood pressure in units called millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

The cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated to a pressure that blocks the flow of blood in the main artery (brachial artery) that travels through the arm. Then, the pressure of the cuff on the arm and artery is gradually released. As the pressure decreases, the health practitioner listens with a stethoscope over the artery at the front of the elbow. The pressure at which the practitioner first hears a pulsation over the artery is the systolic pressure. As the cuff pressure decreases further, the pressure at which the pulsation finally stops is the diastolic pressure.


=>TREATMENT:
--------------

Goal of treatment is to maintain blood pressure below 140/90 and lower for people with other conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease. Adopting healthy lifestyle habits is an effective first step in both preventing and controlling high blood pressure.

THE MAJOR TYPES OF MEDICATIONS FIRST CHOSEN TO CONTROL BP INCLUDE:


(1)=>DIURETICS:

These medications act on kidneys to help the body eliminate sodium and water, reducing blood volume.

(2)=> BETA-BLOCKERS:

These medications block the effects of certain adrenaline-related chemicals, causing your heart to beat more slowly and less forcefully.

(3)=> ACE INHIBITORS:
(Angiotensin-converting enzyme)

These medications help relax blood vessels by blocking the formation of a naturally occurring chemical that narrows blood vessels.

(4)=>CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS:

Calcium antagonists also known as calcium channel blockers. These medications help relax the muscles of blood vessels.


=>PREVENTION:
---------------

PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE, SO DO THAT:

(1): HEALTHY DIET:

Research has shown that following a healthy eating plan can both reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and lower an already elevated blood pressure. Study shows that hypertension was reduced by an eating plan that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods. The diet should include whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts and has reduced amounts of fats, red meats, sweets, and sugared beverages.

Reduce Salt and Sodium in Your Diet: A key to healthy eating is choosing foods containing less salt and sodium. The current recommendation is to consume less than 2.4 grams. This equals to 6 grams or about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day.

(2): REDUCE WEIGHT:

Being overweight increases blood pressure and is also a risk factor for heart disease.

(3): EXERCISE:

Being physically active is one of the most important steps you can take to prevent or control high blood pressure. It also helps reduce your risk of heart disease.

(4): QUIT SMOKING:

Smoking injures blood vessel walls and speeds up the process of hardening of the arteries.

(5): LIMIT ALCOHOL & CAFFEINE:

Even if you're healthy, alcohol and caffeine can raise your blood pressure to an unhealthy level. Reducing your consumption of alcohol can reduce your blood pressure.

(6): CONTROL STRESS:

The effects of stress are usually only temporary. But if you experience stress regularly, it can produce increases in blood pressure that can ¡Ö over time ¡Ö damage your arteries, heart, brain, kidneys and eyes.


=>DRUGS:
----------

-> Lisinopril
-> Labetalol
-> Methyldopa
-> Metalozone
-> MetaProlol
-> Reserpine
-> Chlorothiazide

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