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•´¯`•)»(Walnuts)«(•´¯`• | a1.fruit

What's New and Beneficial about
*.Researchers are convinced -
more than ever before - about the
nutritional benefits of walnuts
when consumed in wholeform,
including the skin. We now know
that approximately 90% ofthe
phenols in walnuts are foundin the
skin, including key phenolicacids,
tannins, and flavonoids. Some
websites will encourage you to
remove the walnut skin -that
whitish, sometimes waxy,
sometimes flaky, outermost partof
shelled walnuts. There can be
slight bitterness to this skin,
andthat's often the reason that
websites give for removing it.
However, we encourage you notto
remove this phenol-rich portion.
*.The form of vitamin E found
inwalnuts is somewhat unusual,
and particularly beneficial. Instead
of having most of its vitamin E
present in the alpha-tocopherol
form, walnuts providean unusually
high level of vitaminE in the form
of gamma-tocopherol. Particularly
in studieson the cardiovascular
health of men, this gamma-
tocopherol form of vitamin E has
been foundto provide significant
protection from heart problems.
*.Most U.S. adults have yet to
discover the benefits of walnuts.A
recent study has determined that
only 5.5% of all adults (ages19-50)
consume tree nuts of any kind!
This small percentage of people
actually do a pretty good job of
integrating tree nuts (including
walnuts) into their diet, and
average about 1.25 ounces of tree
nuts per day. But the other 94.5%
of us report no consumption of
tree nuts whatsoever. In a recent
look at the nutritional differences
between tree nut eaters and non-
eaters, researchers have reported
somepretty notable findings: on a
daily average, tree nut eaters take
in 5 grams more fiber, 260
milligrams more potassium, 73
more milligrams of calcium, 95
more milligrams of magnesium, 3.7
milligrams more vitamin E, and157
milligrams less sodium!
*.Many of us can go local for our
supply of walnuts. According to the
latest trade statistics, 38% of all
walnuts are grown in the U.S. Of
that 38%, the vast majority (almost
90%) come fromCalifornia, and
particularly from the San Joaquin
and SacramentoValleys. Buying
walnuts closer to home can
provide great benefitsfrom the
standpoint of sustainability.
*.Phytonutrient research on the
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
benefits of walnuts has moved this
food further and further up the
ladder of foods that are protective
against metabolic syndrome,
cardiovascular problems, and type
2 diabetes. Some phytonutrients
found in walnuts - for example, the
quinone juglone - are found in
virtually no other commonly-eaten
foods. Other phytonutrients - like
the tannin tellimagrandin or the
flavonol morin - are also
rare and valuable as antioxidants
and anti-inflammatory nutrients.
These anti-inflammatory and
antioxidant phytonutrients also
help explain the decreased risk of
certain cancers - including prostate
cancer and breast cancer - in
relationship to walnut
WHFoods Recommendations
Walnuts are part of the tree nut
family. This food family includes
Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts
(filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans,
pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.
It would be difficult to
overestimate the potential health
benefits associated with this food
family! In the majority of dietary
studies, approximately one ounce
of tree nuts per day is the minimal
amount needed to provide
statistically significant benefits, and
that's the amount we recommend
that you incorporate into your
daily diet. In the case of walnuts,
one ounce means about 7 shelled
walnuts, or 14 walnut halves. Of
course, since tree nuts
(includingwalnuts) are a high-
calorie food,it's important to
incorporate tree nuts into an
overall healthydiet that remains on
target in terms of calories. Luckily,
research has shown that many
people are able to take this step
with good success in terms of
overall caloric intake.
Walnuts not only taste great but
are a rich source of heart-healthy
monounsaturated fats and an
excellent source of thosehard to
find omega-3 fatty acids. Like most
nuts, they can easily be added to
your Healthiest Way of Eating. Just
chop and add to your favorite
salad, vegetable dish, fruit, or
Health Benefits
Cardiovascular Benefits
No aspect of walnuts has been
better evaluated in the research
than their benefits for the heart
and circulatory system. Some
review studies have emphasized
the very favorable impact of
walnuts on"vascular reactivity,"
namely, theability of our blood
vessels to respond to various
stimuli in a healthy manner. In
order to respond to different
stimuli in a healthy way, many
aspects of our cardiovascular
system must be functioning
optimally. These aspects include:
ample presence of antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory nutrients,
proper blood composition, correct
balance in inflammation-regulating
molecules, and propercomposition
and flexibility in our blood vessel
walls. Researchers have
determined the ability of walnuts
to have a favorable impact on all of
these aspects. The chart below
summarizes some key research
findings about walnuts and heart
Cardiovascular Aspect Walnut
Blood Quality decreased LDL
cholesterol; decreased total
cholesterol; increased gamma-
tocopherol; increased omega-3
fatty acids inred blood cells (alpha-
linolenic acid)
Vasomotor Tone decreased aortic
endothelin; improved endothelial
cell function
Risk of Excessive Clotting
decreased maximum platelet
aggregation rate; decreased
platelet activation
Risk of Excessive Inflammation
decreased C reactive protein (CRP);
decreased tumor necrosis factor
alpha (TNF-a)
Research on the blood pressure
benefits of walnuts has been
mixed. We suspect that these
mixed results are related to
differences in mineral
composition amongst different
varieties of walnuts.
Researchershave long been aware
of the relationship between
healthy blood pressure and intake
of specific minerals, including
potassium, calcium, and
magnesium. In multiple studies,
these minerals have a much
greater impact on blood pressure
than the mineral sodium (familiar
to most people in its sodium
chloride form, i.e., everyday table
salt). We've seenstudies showing
the following ranges for key blood
pressure-regulating minerals in
Mineral Natural Range Found
Amongst Different Walnut Varieties
(milligrams per 100 grams)
Potassium 375-500
Calcium 13-91
Magnesium 189-278
Even though there are valuable
amounts of these blood pressure-
regulating minerals in virtually all
varieties of walnuts, the ranges
above may help explain why some
studies have shown statistically
significant benefits from walnuts
on blood pressure while others
have not.
Not in question with respect to
walnuts and cardiovascular
support is their reliable
omega-3content. Adequate intake
of omega-3s, including the alpha-
linolenic acid (ALA) present in
walnuts, has repeatedly been
shown to help improve a wide
variety of cardiovascular functions,
including blood pressure. In at
least one research study, adults
have been able to significantly
increase their blood level of ALA
with as few as 4 walnuts per day.
Walnuts Help Reduce Problems in
Metabolic Syndrome
In the United States, as many as1
in 4 adults may be eligible for
diagnosis with Metabolic
Syndrome (MetS). MetS isn't so
much a "disease" as a constellation
of problematic and overlapping
metabolic problems including
excessive blood fats (triglycerides),
high blood pressure, inadequate
HDL cholesterol, and obesity (as
measured by waist circumference,
and/or body massindex). Recent
studies have shown that
approximately one ounce of
walnuts daily over a period of 2-3
months can help reduce several of
these MetS-related problems. In
addition, addition of walnuts to
participant diets has also been
shown to decrease "abdominal
adiposity"-the technical term
forthe depositing of fat around
themid-section. Importantly, the
MetS benefits of added walnuts
have been achieved without
causing weight gain in any the
studies we've seen to date.
Benefits in Treatment of Type 2
Although we think about type 2
diabetes as a problem primarily
related to blood sugar control and
insulin metabolism, persons
diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
typically have health problems
inother related systems, and are at
special risk for
cardiovascularproblems. An
important part of the goal in
designing a diet plan for persons
with type 2 diabetesis lowering
the risk of future cardiovascular
problems. In this context,
consumption of walnutsis
establishing a more and more
impressive research track record.
Increased flexibility in theresponse
of the cardiovascular system
following meals has been a
repeated finding in research on
walnuts. A variety of different
measurements on bloodvessel
functioning (including
theirmeasurement by ultrasound)
show a relatively small amount of
daily walnut intake (1-2 ounces)
provide significant benefits in
this area for personswith type 2
diabetes. Better blood fat
composition (including less LDL
cholesterol and less total
cholesterol) has also been
demonstrated in persons with type
2 diabetes.
Anti-Cancer Benefits
Given the wide variety antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory nutrients
found in walnuts, it's not
surprising to see research on this
tree nut showing measurable anti-
cancer benefits.The antioxidant
properties of walnuts help lower
risk of chronic oxidative stress,
and theanti-inflammatory
properties help lower risk of
chronic inflammation, and it is
precisely these two types of risk,
that, when combined, pose the
greatest threat for cancer
development. Prostate cancer and
breast cancer are the best-studied
types of cancer with respect to
walnut intake, and their risk has
been found tobe reduced by fairly
large amounts of walnut
consumption. (Large in this case
means approximately 3 ounces per
day.) For prostate cancer, the
evidence is somewhat stronger,
and more ...

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