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◆ HEPATITIS "B" | diseaseconditions



◆ HEPATITIS "B"
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=>GENERAL INFO:
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Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that attacks the liver. This disease is more infectious than AIDS because it is very easily transmitted by blood, a single virus particle can cause disease. It is transmitted through infected blood and other body fluids like seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, breast milk, tears, saliva and open sores . Once infected with the hepatitis B virus, approximately 10% of the people develop a chronic permanent infection. It is very common in Asia, China, Philippines, China, Africa and the Middle east.The overall incidence of reported hepatitis B is 2 per 10,000 individuals, but the true incidence may be higher, because many cases do not cause symptoms and go undiagnosed and unreported.


=>CAUSES:
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The virus that causes hepatitis B is called the hepatitis B virus. The virus is transmitted through blood and bodily fluids that contain blood. This can occur through direct blood-to-blood contact, unprotected sex, illicit drug use.The other common mode of transmission is from hepatitis B infected mothers to the fetus prior to birth.


=>WHO ARE AT RISK:
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-> People who are exposed to blood or body fluids of an infected person are at risk.

->When exposed to blood while doing a job like the first aid or emergency worker, funeral director, police personnel, dentist or dental assistant, or medical personnel.

-> Living in the same household with an infected person.

-> Indulging in sex with a carrier or chronically infected person.

-> People who have more than one sex partner.

-> People who work or are incarcerated in a prison.

-> Traveling to countries with a high incidence of hepatitis B.

-> People who get tattoos made or have their ear or body pierced.

-> Intravenous drug users who share needles and syringes are at extremely high risk.


=>SYMPTOMS:
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-> Pain in the joints
-> Weakness and fatigue
-> Jaundice
-> Dark coloured urine
-> Stools are clay coloured.
-> Fever
-> Generalised itching
-> Loss of appetite
-> Nausea and vomiting
-> Indigestion and abdominal pain
-> Tenderness and enalargement of the liver.


=> DIAGNOSIS:
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-> A series of blood tests will confirm the diagnosis of hepatitis B.

-> Liver enzymes & Markers

-> Sometimes a liver biopsy may be needed for assesment.


=> TREATMENT:
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There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis.
-> Bed rest is recommended during the acute phase of the disease when the symptoms are most severe.

-> A good nutritious diet is supplemented if there is jaundice.

-> Some patients may respond to alpha interferon therapy.

-> Other promising treatment options for chronic hepatitis B include nucleoside analogue drugs.



=>PREVENTION:
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-> Change any abnormal sex behavior and use condoms while having unprotected sex.

-> Wear gloves when touching or cleaning up blood on personal items, tissues, tampons or other items.

-> Don't share razors, toothbrushes or pierced earrings with anyone;

-> Make certain any needles for drugs, ear piercing or tattooing are properly sterilized or use disposable needles for this purpose.


=>DRUGS:
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-> Indinavir
-> Interferon Alpha-2B
-> Lamivudine
-> Entecavir

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