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Hello my frnd
QUESTION:what are the four causes in the process of change according to Aristotle?

There are four causes in the process of the change.
As we see things around us we find that they are changing & an integral fact of our experience that everything changes
For Aristotle change means widely
According to him change means motion, growth,decay, generation & corruption.
Some of these changes are natural & some changes are the products of human action & arts.
Things as we see takes a new form.
A new life is born, a new things is made.
Firstly we can ask, what is it? Secoundly we can ask what is it made of? Thirdly we can ask, by what is it made of?
Fourthly,For what purpose or end it is made?
The four answers of the four four questions are the Aristotle's four causes.
By cause Aristatle means an explanation. The four causes represents a broad pattern for the total explanations of anything & every thing.
Let us take an object of art.
The four causes might be 1.a statue
2.of marbel a sculptor
4.for the purpose of a decoration.
So, aristotle says that every thing has an explanation.
Seeds sprout,roots go down & not up,plants grow and in the process of change move towards their end.
Aristotle's four causes are therefore, 1.the formal cause
Or2. what the thing made of
3.the efficient cause, by what a thing is made, and
4.the final cause, that is the end for which it is made.
On the strength of four causes Aristotle thinks that nature is life.All things are in motion,in the process of becoming & dying away. The procesr of reproduction was,according to him, a clear example of the power which is things that come to be, come to be by some agency and from something, come to be something.

QUESTION: Discuss Aristotle's theory of Categories.

Aristotle developed his theory of categories,Which explains how we think about things.
Whenever we think of a distinct subject matter,we think of its subject & its predicates
Or of some subject matter,we accidents.
Aristotle indicates that there are about nine categories(meaning predicates) that can be connected with a substance,including quantity, quality,relation, place,action,date, posture,possession, action & passivity.
These categories represented for aristotle,the classifications of concepts that are used in scientific knowledge.
In our thinking,we arrange things into these categories,classifying such categories into genera,species & the individual things.WE see the individual as a member of the species & the individual things.
We see the individual as a member of the species & the species as relates to the genus.
Aristotle did not consider these classifications as artificial creations of the mind.
He thought that they were actually in existence outside the mind & in things.
Things he thought fall into various classifications by their nature & we think of their being member of a species or genus because they are thinking.
As Aristotle saw it, was connected with the way things are,thereby,indicating a close relation between logic & metaphysics.
Thinking is always about some specific individual things, a substance.
But a thing never simply exists; it exists somehow & has reason why.
There are always predicates related with subjects.
Such predicates or categories belong to ta thing simply because what it is.
A horse is thought of having certain predicates because it is a hourse.
It also have other predicates,not so intrinsic but rather accidental such as colour,place,size & other dimentions affecting its relation to other material objects.
What aristotle wants to underscore is that there is a sequence that leads to science,this sequence being,first of all,the existence of things & their processes;secondly,our thinking about things & their behaviour; & finally,the transformation of our thought about things into words.
Language is the instrument for formulating scientific thought.Logic,then,is the analysis of language,
Of the process of reasonin, in the way of language & reasoning are related to reatity.

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